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Bamba Trading: Financial Statements

Trial balance

In the trial balance, all the ledger account balances at the end of the accounting period are listed. The key role of the trial balance is to ascertain if the transactions are properly posted in the various ledger accounts. If the debit and the credit balance of the trial balance are equal, then there is an indication that all entries are correct. However, there are some errors that cannot be detected even if the balances in the trial balance agree. Detection of errors in the trial balance occurs if the debit and credit entries are not in agreement. This shows that there are some incorrect entries made in the ledger accounts. Such incorrect entries may create a problem when preparing the final statements. Companies are not mandated to prepare the trial balance. However, it is necessary to prepare it because it facilitates the preparation of the correct financial statements. In the recent years, the role of bookkeeping has been replaced by the use of advanced accounting software. This has eliminated the need of preparing a trial balance. The trial balance for the company is presented in the table below.

Bamba Trading

Trial balance

As at 31st March 2011:

Debit Credit
Cash in hand 2,100
Fixtures and fittings 5,900
Motor vehicle 9,200
Accounts payable 13,188
Bank overdraft 2,400
Beginning inventory 12,976
Land and building 51,600
Discount allowed 1,300
Accounts receivable 13,200
Purchases 61,610
General expenses 260
Interest expenses 210
Carriage inwards 66
Advertisement 504
Maintenance of the building 670
Mortgage on premises 3,840
Capital 69,808
Insurance paid 746
Bad debts 300
Drawings 10,194
Wages and salaries 17,070
Sales 98,370
Discount received 300
Total

Income statement

The income statement is significant and needs to be prepared by all businesses, irrespective of the size of the business. However, the arrangement of items in the income statement will differ depending on the intricate nature of an entity. The income statement is vital because it gives information on the profitability of the business at the end of the financial year. Specifically, the statement shows the revenues and gains and expenses and losses. Under revenues and gains, the items that are shown are the revenues from the main and secondary activities that are carried out by the business. The gains comprise of items such as gains from the sale of items of property, plant and equipment, and gains from litigations among others. Under expenses and losses, the items that are recorded are the amounts spent on the key and secondary activities. Also, items such as loss incurred from the sale of items of property, plant and equipment, and gains from litigations among others. Thus, the income statement does not show the amount of money received for goods sold or amount paid by the company for various expenses. If the revenues and gains exceed expenses and losses, then the company will have a profit. On the other hand, if expenses and losses exceed revenues and gains, then the company will have a loss. The profitability of a company is important to all stakeholders of an organization. The income statement of the company is presented below.

Bamba Trading

Income statement

As at 31st March 2011:

Sales 98,370
Less: discount allowed 1,300
Net sales 97,070
Cost of sales
Opening stock 12,976
Add: Purchases 61,610
Add: carriage inwards 66
Less: discount received 300
Less: closing stock 12,976
Cost of sales 61,376
Gross profit 35,694
Expenses
Operating expenses
General expenses 260
Advertisement 504
Maintains to the building 670
Insurance paid 746
Wages and salaries 17,070
Bad debts 300
Total operating expenses 19,550
Operating income 16,144
Other expenses
Interest expenses 210
Net income 15,934

The calculations show that the net income generated by the business at the end of the period amounts to 15,934.

Balance sheet

The final statement that will be prepared is the balance sheet. The balance sheet gives information on the financial standing at the end of the financial year. In a snapshot, a stakeholder can be able to see the assets owned by the company, the amount that the company owes other players, the amount of capital available in the company and the capital providers. The three main components of the statement of financial position are assets, liabilities, and the owner’s equity. It is worth mentioning that there are sets of accounting standards that give guidelines on how the financial statements of a company should be prepared. Therefore, a company needs to the accounting standard to use. The table presented below shows the balance sheet of the company.

Bamba Trading

Balance sheet

As at 31st March 2011:

Assets
Current assets
Cash in hand 2,100
Inventory 12,976
Accounts receivable 13,200
Total current assets 28,276
Non-current assets
Fixtures and fittings 5,900
Motor vehicle 9,200
Land and building 51,600
Total non-current assets 66,700
Total assets 94,976
Liabilities and capital
Current liabilities
Accounts payable 13,188
Bank overdraft 2,400
Total current liabilities 15,588
Non-current liabilities
Mortgage on premises 3,840
Total liabilities 19,428
Equity
Capital 69,808
Drawings (10,194)
Net income 15,934
Total capital 75,548
Total capital and liabilities 94,976

From the calculations, the total assets amount to 94,976, the total liabilities amounts to 19,428 while the capital totals to 75,548.

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