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Discussion on the Management Theories


Management is a process that determines how scarce resources are available for use to maximize potential. There have been various options on how to effectively manage organizations. The scientific theory, bureaucratic theory, and the human relations movement have been at the center of management changes.

The Three Approaches to Management

The Scientific study allows simplifying jobs and optimizing productivity to achieve better results. Managers could work with laborers through coordinating activities (Kotter International, 2016). Fredrick Taylor introduced incentives to motivate the workers. In measuring efficiency, he discovered that some people could work faster and better than others and that they were the right people for hire.

It was important to match the workers with their specialty and let them maximize their potential at all times. The method breaks down work into small units and assigns them to individuals according to their specialization. Supervision and instructions should consider the efficiency of every worker.

The bureaucratic theory is a mechanical method that involves systems that are well coordinated. They are mainly in the public sector and few private organizations. Its features include structuring the organization into hierarchies. Rules take the center stage in governing the staff and the firm. Unlike the scientific method, Weber’s bureaucratic system did not consider the human concept.

The human relations movement developed because earlier theories only concentrated on systems, work, and structures (Longest & Darr, 2014). They did not include care for the people in the organizations. The behavioral sciences assisted the movement to inculcate it into organizations. The human relation was popular and remains so because there is more openness today than during the classical periods. There is a shift in societal thinking towards appreciating the people who work for the organization.

The Best Approach

Human relations would be the best approach to include in management. No team can succeed without the participation of its workers from the bottom to the top executives. Today, many human rights organizations have come up with laws to govern organizations. They may lead to the closure of organizations. It is the one primary area that most local and international organizations value in every field of work.

The Kotter Model

Kotter’s 8-step change model is an approach to management that dwells on the values of change in an organization (Kotter International, 2016). It is a step-by-step series that requires the change agent to accomplish each step at a time. There is a need for collaboration and the building of consensus. The other management theories do not deal with change. They only show a different approach towards solving organizational needs. The only unified inclusion is that people participate in building the desired vision.

Health Care Organizational Leadership

Health care institutions deal with procurement of drugs, hiring and firing staff, providing treatment to patients, and addressing various complaints (Longest & Darr, 2014). All the services are unique and critical to all situations. However, the management has to grapple with the needs of the patients and society as compared to the medical field and international laws. Some societal cultures do not agree with medical laws. There are a lot of hierarchical systems that slow down service. The management has to develop a hybrid system creatively from the theories to deal with all the healthcare consumers.


Leadership in organizations requires strategic ways of managing vision and people. Some agencies have to involve a few basics from each theory to apply to certain situations. Kotter’s 8-step model can apply to any organization.


Kotter International. (2016). Web.

Longest, B. & Darr, K. (2014). Managing health services organizations and health systems (6th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Health Professions Press.

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